Apr 30 2014

ePortfolio: Math 1040 Reflection

Body Measurements – Math 1040 Final Project

Throughout this semester we have been evaluating claims and looking at statistical analysis’ of populations data. For my final project I chose to evaluate data on a population of individuals who participated in a study of their body measurements. There were 507 individuals that participated in the study; from the population I then drew two samples of 33, one being a simple random sample, and the other being a systematic random sample.

Firstly, I examined the populations’ categorical data – male to female ratio, which was 248:259, which was 49% male to 51% female. In sample 1, the simple random sample, the ratio was split 16:17, which was 48% male to 52% female. In sample 2, the systematic random sample, the ratio was split 17:16, which was 52% male to 48% female. Although, the populations were not evenly split between male and female like one would assume, with an uneven sample number it is mathematically impossible to have the samples be evenly split.

The confidence intervals for population proportion, of the categorical data, the ratios of male to females in sample 1. These intervals are 90% (0.372, 0.658), 95% (0.345, 0.686), and 99% (0.291, 0.739). Meaning that in each interval, we are X% confident that the population proportion of females will be included in the confidence interval. In all of our intervals we can be confident that the population proportion of females, which are 51.52% will be between the values (0.372, 0.658). The values all worked, because the sample data did a good job of estimating the population value.

I ran a hypothesis test on categorical data of sample 1, to test and see if the population proportion is equal to 50% (Ho: p=0.50, H1: p≠0.50). With a two-tailed test the p-value is twice the value of the area to the right; the p-value is 0.8650.The calculated p-value is 0.8618, both of the p-values are greater than significance levels of 0.01, 0.05, and 0.1; therefore we fail to reject the null hypothesis. Thus we can conclude that there is not sufficient sample evidence to warrant rejection of the claim that 50% of the population is female.

Secondly, I examined the populations’ quantitative data. I chose to evaluate abdominal measurements, as I am going into the health care field, and abdominal measurements can tell us a lot about the individual. The frequencies within the population were normally distributed, the mean was 85.654cm with a standard deviation of 9.415cm, minimum of the population was 64cm, and the maximum was 121.1cm. The frequencies within sample 1 were skewed to the right, the mean was 84.5cm with a standard deviation of 9.244cm, the minimum of the sample 67cm, and the maximum was 107cm. The frequencies within sample 2 were skewed to the left, the mean was 79.345cm with a standard deviation was 15.175cm, the minimum was 52.4, and the maximum was 107.3cm.

The confidence intervals for population mean, of the quantitative data, abdominal girth of sample 1 where the mean was 84.5, and sample standard deviation was 9.244, and the population standard deviation is “unknown”, three confidence intervals are computed as below. For this sample the confidence intervals are 90% (81.774, 87.226), 95% (81.222, 87.778), and 99% (80.094, 88.904). Meaning that in each interval, we are X% confident that the true mean of abdominal girth for all of the people in the population, will be included in the confidence interval. The population parameters of a population mean 84.5 and a standard deviation of 9.244 is captured by all of the confidence intervals, we can continue to create a narrower confidence interval, however the degree of confidence that will be displayed decreased substantially with every attempt to narrow our interval.

I ran a hypothesis test for the abdominal girth in the sample 1, we tested the claim that the population mean is greater than 1st Quartile of the population (Ho: mµ=78.8, H1: mµ>78.8). The sample is right-tailed; therefore the critical region is everything right of the critical value (everything greater than 1.694). The test statistic 3.542 is greater than 1.694, it is in the critical region, so we reject the null hypothesis. There is sufficient evidence to support the claim that the population mean is greater than 78.8cm.

This project helped me understand the concepts of statistical analysis, and testing. Throughout the statistical projects of this class I have learned a lot about how Math, and Statistics relates to treatment in the health care world. I asked around while working on projects for this class “how many times have you used statistics since learning it in class” and was slightly depressed (just kidding) when I heard a resounding, “we use it everyday, even if we are not the ones doing the math or data collection – medicine relies on statistical analysis.” Through this project it helped me get a first hand experience of forming a hypothesis, sample selection, analyzing said data, interpret the data, and in turn being able to reject or approve our hypothesis.

Dec 7 2010

holiday must haves

Leave me a comment + tell me what are yours? (:

Jan 25 2010


If I were a month, I’d be April
If I were a day of the week, I’d be Thursday
If I were a time of day, I’d be Midnight
If I were a planet, I’d be Pluto… wait its not a planet anymore… scratch that… I’d be Neptune.
If I were a sea animal, I’d be a Turtle
If I were a direction, I’d be West
If I were a piece of furniture, a Bookshelf
If I were a liquid, I’d be Coffee
If I were a gemstone, I’d be Emerald
If I were a tree, I’d be a Willow
If I were a flower, I’d be a Calla Lilly
If I were a kind of weather, I’d be Spring
If I were a musical instrument, I’d be a Recorder
If I were a color, I’d be Black… wait… Green…
If I were an emotion, I’d be Gleeful
If I were a fruit, I’d be a Banana
If I were a sound, I’d be a Baby’s Laughter
If I were an element, I don’t Oxygen
If I were a car, I’d be a red Toyota Prius
If I were a food, a Pizza
If I were a place, I’d be Wherever You Are
If I were a material, I’d be Satin
If I were a taste, I’d be a Sweet
If I were a scent, I’d be something Lavender
If I were an object, I’d be The Ground on Which You Stand
If I were a body part, I’d be Your Hands Used to Change the World
If I were a facial expression, I’d be A Smile
If I were a song, I’d be “Jump Jivin'”
If I were a pair of shoes, I’d be Ballet Flats
If I were a spice, I’d be Basil
If I were a relationship status, Happily Married
If I were a photo, I’d be in Sepia
If I were a sentence, I’d be Unfinished
If I were a kiss, I’d be Passionate
If I were a smile, I’d be The One that Lights Up Your Day.
If I were a different person, I’d be Mother Theresa.

Nov 6 2009

change is inevitable

Question how does a girl who falls, no actually jumps eyes wide open, down a rabbit hole, plummeting into chaos come out unchanged?

I we all change as we get older. We yearn for yester-year. Each year it continues to pain us as we grow older, our skin loses it’s elasticity, gaining weight is a perpetual battle with our thighs & tummy. We move out, we move on. A clean break is easier. You can reset it, and it heals, and you move on, but if you leave things messy, and things don’t get put right, then it just hurts, forever.

We continue to grow, things change, times change. We have children. But who are we? We essentially are the same person we were, even if nothing is the same. It’s awesome. It sucks. It’s real.

Question how does a girl who falls, no actually jumps eyes wide open, down a rabbit hole, plummeting into chaos come out unchanged?

She doesn’t

Nov 5 2009

blast from the past thursday.

Its August 2004, My life has changed dramatically over the summer, I am no longer the person that I was four months ago. No longer in “self destruct mode”. I am taking active steps towards health, towards a real chance at life. I am going to church, I am sober, I am stable, I am eating, I am not exercising 4 hours a day, I am not part of the old cottonwood cliques. I participating in life & not letting it run me over. I am no longer in dance or cheer (thats another story for another day). I am a senior now, and am going to be starting a new school in the next few days.

Its September now, I hate it here. I feel at times like I am one of the few that is actively working on my spirituality. I was elected by the staff to run a small group of the sophomore girls. I am amazed, out of the 3 girls in the class – why me? I am new, they have been here for years. I would be only a few weeks before I figured out why they were not chosen for this responsibility. Daniel is the only one I can trust, He knows my past, he knows why I am here. There is the boy in my study hall, he’s geeky like me, I swear that he is trying to show off his skills. I like him. Minor flaw, he’s taken.

Its November now, I am not really liked by my class. With only 10 of us, it tends to complicate things. I had been invited to drinking parties, after turning them down a few times I became an outcast. I still have Daniel, I have my small group, and I have that boy from study hall – we’ve started to talk a lot now. We are friends, its good to have someone new in my life that I can talk to. His girlfriend hates me, I try to ignore it, there is nothing there, there can’t be.

Its February, his girlfriend has come to me, she wants a mentor. I oblige, however part of me knows this could get difficult. Our class has just began planning our senior trip. People are getting cruel, I have been the subject of very rude statements & pranks. I am hurt, I can’t even being to explain the pain. I want, I desire, I need hope. Only two people stand up for me Daniel, and that geeky boy.

Its April, we are making our finally preparations for our trip to Florida. That geeky boy became a really good friend. A confidant.

Its June, we are officially out of school forever! Well, until college starts up in August. all of us are going our separate ways. I have chosen to go to school up in Minnesota and will be leaving at the beginning of August.

It’s December 2005, things have been rocky being on the end of the relationship triad with that geeky boy & being a mentor to his girlfriend. I was told some things by her, secrets, things that would break that geeky mans heart. I couldn’t do it, I couldn’t allow such pain to be inflicted to him. I had to tell him. I knew things would never be the same again. Maybe I would be losing 2 friends, I didn’t care. I couldn’t keep such a heart wrenching secret from him.

Its nearing 9 pm on Christmas Eve, we hadn’t spoken in a few weeks since I broke him the news. I had heard through the gossip channels that they were over. I get an email from him, my jaw dropped. I never thought that I would hear from him again. After all; who doesn’t shot the messenger these days? He wanted to met up. I reluctantly agreed. Part of me needed to get out of the house even though I had only be home for a few days. We talked, it was real, like we had just barely met, from the weather to the gut wrenching parts of our being. Part of me ached when we separated ways for the night. He was like forbidden fruit. And I wanted more, I felt whole when I was with him, He couldn’t actually feel the same, right?

Its Christmas Day, I got another email – he thanked me for meeting him the night before, he also asked me to join him & his family for Christmas desert & to watch a video he had received as a gift. My heart skipped a beat. Could this be real? I nearly leaped to my car and speed across town to his home. We sat awkwardly on opposite ends of his basement couch and watched “The Island.” Honestly, I couldn’t even remember what the movie was about, I was too busy attempting to analyze his every move. Our bodies suddenly next to each other, I didn’t even notice or remember who moved, but all of a sudden, his arm was around me. All in one moment, the negative feelings towards myself drifted away. I felt safe.

Its New Years Eve, the dawn of 2006 lays before me. I am back in Minnesota, I am lost in my own emotions. I want him, I need him. But am I emotionally strong enough for along distance relationship? My heart felt torn, how could someone love another so much that they could handle being apart from them? The words didn’t sound sane. Wouldn’t one do everything they could to be next to them? The words wear foul in my own mind. I had to empty this out of my mind before I lost myself further down the rabbit hole. I wrote him a letter, not all happy-go-lucky-I-love-you type either mind you. Eight pages later I was exhausted, I felt naked. He must never see this I thought, my heart ignored all convictions.

Its January 25th, Its my half birthday, I am on a flight home to see him. He meets me at the airport with flowers & lifted me from the ground as he lay a kiss on my wind chapped lips. Today was the day that we confirmed that we were “official”.

Its February 2oth, I am back in Minnesota, my entire body aching to see him, to smell him. I have had a scary past 24 hours, off which I spent about 14 of those in the ER. The cold, the stress, my asthma & pneumonia landed me unable to breathe, he saved my life, he called for help, even though I was over 2000 miles away. He forever will be my hero.

It’s June now, I am packing all of my belongs to make the trek back to Utah. I decided to attend the U of U for the rest of my education, there are two reasons for this a) being 120k in debt for a social work degree didn’t taste well b) being close to him would make my life much more pleasurable. I’ll leave your precious minds to determine the weight of each.

Fast forward to December 2007, we have made the leap. The Lord has a brought us together for more than just a passing in each others lives. We began courting. He also surprised me with a promise ring. With the exception of a heart wrenching stint in spring 2008 it has not left my finger.It someday will become part of my wedding ring ensemble.